Which things make a fast void (batil)?
There are nine acts which invalidate fast:
1. Eating or drinking.
2. Sexual intercourse.
3. Masturbation or any sexual activity resulting in ejaculation.
4. Ascribing false things to Allah (s.w.t) Holy Prophet (saw) and Ahlul Bayt (a.s.)
5. Swallowing heavy dust or thick smoke.
6. Submerging one’s entire head in water.
7. Remaining in need of Ghusl-e-Janabat, Ghusl-e-Haiz or Ghusl-e-Nifas up to the time of morning Azan;
8.Taking a liquid enema and
9. Intentional vomiting.
Can a Muslim forgo fasting in the month of Ramazan if the nature of work entails hardship?
The Muslim who cannot work if he observes fasting should abstain from working. He may take a loan, if need arises, but he is not permitted to forego fasting in the month of Ramadfhan.
What is the Kaffarah (atonement) of intentionally not observing fast of the month of Ramadhan?
In case of intentionally not observing or breaking a fast (of the month of Ramazan), in addition to making up the Qaza (defaulted) fast he may atone for the same by any of the 3 methods given hereunder:
1. Free a slave, or
2. Observe fast for 60 days. The first 31 days of this fast must be consecutive but if he/she fails to fast on any day in this period without any just excuse, he should commence fasting all over again. However it would not matter if he did not maintain continuity (after 31 days) for completion of the remaining 29 fasts, or
3. Feed 60 poor Muslims to their fill. However if it is not possible for him to fulfill any of these he should give Sadaqah (charity) according to his/her status and seek Divine forgiveness.
What are the consequences in case a person cannot fast due to ill health? What happens if one deliberately breaks his fast or does not keep fasts when he is obliged to do so?
If an ill person cannot fast he/she has to keep a Qaza fast afterwards, but if he/she cannot keep Qaza fast either in the future due to continuous ill health, then he/she has to give Fidya which is feeding one poor person for every day of missing fast. The poor person should be a Mo’min besides being poor. Kaffara is a penalty for deliberately breaking fast or not fasting. Kaffara for each day is either freeing a slave or feeding 60 poor persons for each day of not fasting (deliberately) or fasting for two months for each day. Kaffara is just a penalty and the person still needs to keep Qaza fast for the day he missed fasting.